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Rudolf Frieling, «Digital Heritage»
As is so often the case in times of radical change, ghosts appear on the horizon of a dismal future. In recent years we have become acquainted with the ghost of the totalitarian digital world. Uncertainty has spread between the poles of utopian euphoria and the despairing charge of an irreversible loss of substance. Pessimistic newspaper headlines herald "The Torture of the Bits," a problematic field between totalitarianism and "electronic self-deception," as well as the erosion of the function of libraries as a result of digitalization (of books). Talk is of placing a bet on the future that does not take the resultant costs into consideration. With this we encounter the rhetorical figure of demagogy, which time and again makes use of metaphors of doom: Our data vanish in the depths of the computer and the Internet. This is contrasted by the complete affirmation of the new technologies: In 2000 in Rome, for instance, at a conference on our cultural heritage sponsored by IBM, representatives of museums discussed the prospect of placing maximum-quality reproductions of their entire inventories online – in order to potentially acquire new sources of income. In the years immediately following its advent, the Internet promised completely new opportunities for accessing historical collections, provided that these could be stored on servers.

Katharina Ammann, «Exhibiting Video»
If one starts out from the assumption that the video does not become a visible end product until it is presented, then the question of its presentation gains particular meaning. Is presentation a part of the reception of the video? Does the issue of presentation also find expression in the content of video art? Can the general developmental history of video art be understood by making reference to the history of the conditions of presentation? The in part precarious preservatorial state of many older videos has led to a new awareness of issues of presentation and documentation. How difficult it nonetheless currently is to understand both works on video as well as video exhibitions shall be demonstrated using examples of reconstruction attempts. It also remains to be clarified how content, technology and institution stand in relation to the video. Particular attention will be given to artistic and curatorial presentation strategies as well as to works of art which thematicize the showing and viewing of videos.
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Christoph Blase, «The Reanimation of Open Reel»
The «Labor für antiquierte Videosysteme» (Laboratory for Antiquated Video Systems) at the Institute of Image Media of the Center for Art and Media (ZKM) in Karlsruhe has existed since August 2004. A functioning equipment pool is systematically being set up here for as many of the video formats from the 1960s through the early 1980s as possible. Up to now its focus has been standard Japanese 1/2" reels, in particular Sony's CV and AV series, Akai's 1/4" system, and all of the U-Matic formats. When required, the video material is mechanically and thermally cleaned and restored using specially developed methods and equipment. The laboratory has a total of about 120 antiquated video recorders, which in addition to the standards already mentioned also includes the following systems: CVC, V-Cord, Bauer 1/4", Polavision, Laserdisk, IVC and Ampex 1", Pixelvision, TED optical videodisc, Shibaden and National 1/2" colour, as well as all VCR formats, Betamax and Video 2000. The talk presents the laboratory's concept, and using historical video material defines the problems that most commonly arise in the area of video restoration.

Hans D. Christ, Curating and Preserving: On the Synergies Between the Exhibitors and Preservers of Media Art
The art business is pressing for standardization, in particular in the area of media art. Ignoring the specific in this genre ultimately leads to a homogenisation that would have us believe that unfortunately, a video installation has sound and is otherwise light projected onto a screen. Besides, the intrinsic value of an art form that is still in a process of dynamic development cannot be mediated if one ignores its specific conditions of presentation. Knowledge of these specifics is scattered between the artists, the technical directors, the artists' assistants, and—if they are interested in these underlying conditions—the curators as well. This talk will present several case examples to illustrate how these competencies can be used for the issues surroundings the preservation of media art.

Dieter Daniels, «Round Table: Video Art/Art Market»
It has been about ten years since video art began establishing itself in the art market?not only as a space-seizing installation, but also as a linear tape to projection. Until the 1980s, videotapes were for the most part only available in unlimited editions at relatively low standard prices. Today, a linear video from a limited edition can cost several thousand Euros. This development is being accompanied by new opportunities and new problems. Opportunities include the increase of the museal value of the video as a collectible object and its equal status as an artistic image medium along with photography and painting. Some of the problems include issues associated with the preservation of data carriers, rights of sale, the permissibility of exhibition copies, and access to videos for research and teaching purposes. The participants will each introduce a different perspective on the issues of the gallery, the museum, the artist, distribution and the private collection. In addition to pragmatic aspects, attention will also be given to the fundamental issue of the transformation of the commodity character of video art.
video (part 1)
video (part 2)

Johannes Gfeller, «Time-based Arts—Time-based Errors: A Plea for a Restoration Software Based On Lines»
From a genealogical point of view, film and television/video are not arranged in a line of succession, rather they have a parallel genesis in the 1880s. A good half a century before that, their precursors, photography and (image) telegraphy, also emerged alongside each other. From this time on the two camps may have maintained an economically related (one-way) path of communication; however, it was culturally unbalanced and remained virulent under the surface. For this reason it is only partially surprising that the little brother 'video' has to deal with the tools for the electronic processing of digitalized material from the big brother 'film' as in real life with hand-me-downs?whether they fit or not. Both the hardware as well as the software for the digital processing of moving images seems to be primarily occupied with being able to correctly detect 2:3 pull-down, to give a stable frame back to the blurred image state, as well as to distinguish between conspicuous scratches and dust particles and significant image content of similar dimensions. These are all errors that genuine video does not have. The ethical responsibility not only for the image content, but for the substance of the image as well prohibits the unnecessary and wholesale conversion of the image information. Time-based errors should be recognised as such and corrected, but not converted back as surface errors. The touching up of the images should definitely be discussed and justified for the presentation; however, for restoration worthy of the name it should absolutely be refrained from.
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Hans Dieter Huber , «The Embodiment of Code»
The difference between organisation and structure is fundamental for the showing and presentation of digital works of art. Because in their digital components they exist in two ways: as code and in the form of their showing or presentation. The showing of code is always contemporary, i.e. it requires contemporary equipment and circumstances, and it is always embodied. The talk concerns itself with the consequences for the presentation and the preservation of media art that result from the difference between notation and showing.
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Caitlin Jones, «Seeing Double»
Conservators have explored both traditional and experimental strategies for dealing with digital works and others of an ephemeral nature. Among these strategies has emerged a promising way to replicate obsolete or unavailable materials: emulation. "Seeing Double", featuring a series of original art installations paired with their emulated versions in an exhibition in 2004, offered a unique opportunity for both preservation experts and the public to compare both versions directly and put emulation to the test. The exhibition was organized by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in partnership with The Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art, Science, and Technology.

Ulrich Lang, Dealing with Modern Art: The Preservation of el_media
With the advent of the so-called new media, the field of fine arts has changed considerably. The spectrum of artistic expression and the dissemination of works of art have taken on dimensions previously undreamed of. Does dealing with modern art in general, but in particular when electronic elements are involved, present us with unexpected and new problems? Have the demands of and opportunities posed by restoration changed radically? This lecture will attempt to forge a link between painting and media art.

Stephen Partridge/Jackie Hatfield , «REWIND—Artists' Video in the 1970s and 1980s: Impermanence and Transition»
Conservators have explored both traditional and experimental strategies for dealing with digital works and others of an ephemeral nature. Among these strategies has emerged a promising way to replicate obsolete or unavailable materials: emulation. «Seeing Double», featuring a series of original art installations paired with their emulated versions in an exhibition in 2004, offered a unique opportunity for both preservation experts and the public to compare both versions directly and put emulation to the test. The exhibition was organized by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in partnership with The Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art, Science, and Technology.
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Walter Plaschzug, «Digital Restoration»
Digital restoration in connection with video material from the 1960s through the 1980s is a very special issue that up to now has received little attention in the research and product world. In general, we can distinguish between three principle restoration procedures: 1) automatic, 2) semi-automatic, and 3) manual. The automatic procedure is very well covered by fully developed special products. Unfortunately, this equipment is very expensive and is not suited for restoration in the sense of preserving the material. On the other hand, manual restoration is extremely labor-intensive, and many errors cannot be rectified using purely manual methods. What remains is semi-automatic restoration, which I will pay special attention to in my contribution. In general one can say that a technical solution would ideally integrate all three procedures. This is being aspired to in the European research project Prestospace, to which two well-known representatives of restoration equipment, Snell & Wilcox (Archangel) and HS-ART (Diamant) have contributed their know-how.
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Karsten Rentz, Media Succession: From Film to Digital Video. Progress – Problems – Prospects
The triumphal march of digital media appears to be unstoppable. To the same degree, digital video seems to be taking the place of traditional cinema and presents itself as both a substitute and an archive of the old medium. In the process, it is thoughtlessly overlooked that the new digital formats are subject to a series of limitations, which are accompanied by a certain degree of incompatibility with traditional cinematic culture. Starting out from the historical and technical aspects of film, analog television, and digital video, in its closing considerations this lecture will not only highlight the technical strengths and weaknesses of the various media, it will also contribute material to the discussion regarding the cultural and economic effects of this development.
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Bart Rutten, Perform and performed. «Incision» and «Freeing the Voice» by Marina Abramovic/Ulay documented as contemporary art works.
What is the influence of (art historical) time on the significance of performance art work by Marina Abramovic /Ulay. Based on my studies of the documentation of performance works the talk will focus on the development of a performance from a unique, unrehearsed  experience in a, on forehand set by specific place and time, to a wide variety of different works: various forms of documentation and reinterpretations of the artist(s), varying in length and physical appearances:  video works, installation works and archival publications. All based on the actual documentation footage of a one time opportunity. How do we collect these versions, what should be known for future presentations. The talk will be based on visual material and a chronological anthology of the different appearances of at least two performance pieces by Abramovic/Ulay: where different recordings: text, photo, film and video, different transfers (NTSC vs PAL). Besides using our own archive I will have access to Marina  Abramovic’s and Ulay’s private archive and the archive of former performance centre De Appel. Tools will be The Variable Media Network, our own check lists and the research done in cooperation with the Netherlands Institute of Cultural Heritage.
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Sandra Thomas/Alexandra Wessels
, MediaArtArchive - Video Art Digital: Conservation and representation in the digital space of communication
In the course of the project «MedienKunstArchiv» (Media Art Archive) 1200 video art works have been digitized over the last two years in order to make them accessible and to distribute them via an online archive. This work has been determined by a series of art historical and cultural notions that contextualized the project theoretically and accompanied it also practically. The transfer of video art to digital storage media questions once again notions of original, authorship and the work of art. Through the database of «MedienKunstArchiv» video art can be searched and retrieved, and it can thus be communicated in new ways. Besides the digital archive as a spatial memory and knowledge generator, questions related to the aesthetics of video, the iconography and methodology of image description are put to the foreground.

Heather Weaver, «Case Study I»
Heather Weaver will explain how video preservation differs from restoration and will provide an overview of the restoration process used in «The Eternal Frame», a 1976 video work by Ant Farm and T.R. Uthco. She will show examples of video aberrations encountered in this restoration, some caused by degradation of the original tape, some introduced in the preservation process, and others inherent to the medium at the time the piece was created, and will discuss which aberrations were repaired and why. The equipment and techniques used in «The Eternal Frame» restoration will be illustrated, in addition to other methods of restoration available to the preservationist. She will also discuss how the process differs when the artist cannot be present at the time of the restoration.
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Tina Weidner / Yvonne Mohr, Case Study II
Based on selected works from the edition «40yearsvideoart.de», the restoration concept and its technical realisation with be discussed in a dialogue. Starting out from the video signal's state of preservation, the advantages and disadvantages in the use of various software systems will be put up for discussion. The process of deciding which phenomena are capable of being restored or which ones must be conserved as they are is essential for the preservation of the original aesthetics of these works of art. In this, the question is raised concerning the manner in which damaged video images are treated: they often considerably impair the readability of the preserved work, however they are nevertheless an immanent part of their respective history. The problem surrounding the inability to reverse any electronic intervention is that at a later point in time, it can no longer be distinguished from the original, and thus it conflicts with the ethical foundations of this discipline. This must be  taken into consideration with regard to the possible consequences of current decisions for the future.
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Boris Groys, «From the image to the image file – and back.»
The presence of digital video images in the museum prompts us to think about what it means for the art system that moving pictures are shown especially at this location and, in general, in a traditional exhibition space–independent of whether it is an analog film or a digital video. Within this context, I would like to examine in particular the problematic nature of digitalization, which applies not only to the video, but also to digital photography. Because the video image is both: digital and moving. For this reason, one can describe it best if one separates these two characteristics, as there are analog images which are also moving images (film), and digital images which are motionless (photographs). Now: When moving images are placed into a museum context, their perception is essentially determined by the expectations we generally associate with a visit to the museum–that means by the expectations that stem from the long, previous history of our contemplation of motionless images, be they paintings, photographs, sculptures, or ready-made objects. These are primarily expectations related to the duration of our contemplating such images.

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